Numerical analysis of butt and lap welded titanium reinforced mild steel joints

Timothy Odiaka, Stephen A. Akinlabi, Nkosinathi Madushele, Olawale S. Fatoba, Sunir Hassan, Zwalinzima Mkoko, Esther T. Akinlabi

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Gas Metal Arc Welding involves complex Multiphysics. The application of numerical modelling helps to understand aspects of the complex phenomena that occur in typical welding processes. In this study, a three-dimensional transient thermal analysis was carried out on both butt and lap joint welded titanium reinforced mild steel sheets using ANSYS Mechanical. A modified Gaussian Equation was adopted to simulate the GMAW transient heat source. The temperature distribution across the weld zones of the butt and lap joints were obtained from the numerical analysis. The same analysis was also carried out for unreinforced butt and lap joints. The temperature history of both the reinforced and unreinforced butt and lap joints were compared and correlated with the microstructural evolution observed across the various weld zones. The weld pool geometries of both reinforced and unreinforced butt and lap joints were estimated from the numerical analysis. These geometries were compared with the weld pool dimensions obtained from experimental data. The temperature history obtained for the reinforced and unreinforced butt and lap joints correlated well with the microstructural evolution across the zones. It was also estimated that the peak temperatures of the reinforced butt joints were higher than those of the unreinforced butt joints indicating that the titanium reinforcement could have induced a slower cooling rate. The estimated weld pool geometries of the lap joints obtained from the numerical analysis were in good agreement with experimental data with less than 10% relative error for both reinforced and unreinforced lap joints. The numerically obtained depth of penetration of the butt joint agreed with experimental results with less than 10% relative error. The modified Gaussian equation used to simulate the transient heat source was shown to be capable of predicting temperature histories and weld geometries of reinforced steel sheets to an acceptable degree.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1175-1184
Number of pages10
JournalMaterials Today: Proceedings
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event11th International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterization - Indore, India
Duration: 15 Dec 202017 Dec 2020


  • GMAW
  • Gaussian Equation
  • Numerical Analysis
  • Transient Heat Source
  • Weld Pool Geometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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