Natural Time Series Parameters Forecasting: Validation of the Pattern-Sequence-Based Forecasting (PSF) Algorithm; A New Python Package

Mayur Kishor Shende, Sinan Q. Salih, Neeraj Dhanraj Bokde, Miklas Scholz, Atheer Y. Oudah, Zaher Mundher Yaseen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Climate change has contributed substantially to the weather and land characteristic phenomena. Accurate time series forecasting for climate and land parameters is highly essential in the modern era for climatologists. This paper provides a brief introduction to the algorithm and its implementation in Python. The pattern-sequence-based forecasting (PSF) algorithm aims to forecast future values of a univariate time series. The algorithm is divided into two major processes: the clustering of data and prediction. The clustering part includes the selection of an optimum value for the number of clusters and labeling the time series data. The prediction part consists of the selection of a window size and the prediction of future values with reference to past patterns. The package aims to ease the use and implementation of PSF for python users. It provides results similar to the PSF package available in R. Finally, the results of the proposed Python package are compared with results of the PSF and ARIMA methods in R. One of the issues with PSF is that the performance of forecasting result degrades if the time series has positive or negative trends. To overcome this problem difference pattern-sequence-based forecasting (DPSF) was proposed. The Python package also implements the DPSF method. In this method, the time series data are first differenced. Then, the PSF algorithm is applied to this differenced time series. Finally, the original and predicted values are restored by applying the reverse method of the differencing process. The proposed methodology is tested on several complex climate and land processes and its potential is evidenced.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6194
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • PSF
  • Python
  • forecasting
  • time series
  • univariate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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