Natural multi-occurrence of mycotoxins in rice from Niger State, Nigeria

Hussaini Anthony Makun, Michael Francis Dutton, Patrick Berka Njobeh, Mulunda Mwanza, Adamu Y. Kabiru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Citations (Scopus)


Twenty-one rice samples from field (ten), store (six) and market (five) from the traditional rice-growing areas of Niger State, Nigeria were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB 2), and patulin (PAT) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively. T-2 toxin was determined using TLC only. AFs were detected in all samples, at total AF concentrations of 28-372 μg/kg. OTA was found in 66.7% of the samples, also at high concentrations (134-341 μg/kg) that have to be considered as critical levels in aspects of nephrotoxicity. ZEA (53.4%), DON (23.8), FB1 (14.3%) and FB2 (4.8%) were also found in rice, although at relatively low levels. T-2 toxin was qualitatively detected by TLC in only one sample. Co-contamination with AFs, OTA, and ZEA was very common, and up to five mycotoxins were detected in a single sample. The high AF and OTA levels as found in rice in this study are regarded as unsafe, and multi-occurrences of mycotoxins in the rice samples with possible additive or synergistic toxic effects in consumers raise concern with respect to public health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalMycotoxin Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2011


  • Chromatography
  • Co-occurrence
  • Mycotoxins
  • Nigeria
  • Rice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Microbiology
  • Toxicology


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