Mycotoxin reduction and metabolite profiles of ogi produced using traditional fermentation methods

Julianah Olayemi Odukoya, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De Boevre, Gabriel Olaniran Adegoke, Frank Devlieghere, Siska Croubels, Gunther Antonissen, Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo, Sefater Gbashi, Johnson Oluwaseun Odukoya, Patrick Berka Njobeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Mycotoxins are widely present in maize, a favourite staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Food processing methods, like fermentation, have been suggested as potential ways to reduce mycotoxin contamination levels in the grain and, as a result, limit the exposure of crop consumers to the harmful effects of the toxins. The influence of four traditional fermentation processes [cold (with changed steeping liquor (CSL) and unchanged steeping liquor (USL), Fon and Goun procedures] on the mycotoxin reduction and metabolites profile of ogi, a fermented maize product, was studied. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography linked to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HR-TOF-MS) were respectively employed for the mycotoxin and metabolite profiles analyses of the samples. Among the nine mycotoxins detected in the raw maize samples, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) + fumonisin B2 (FB2) concentrations were found to exceed the European Union (EU) maximum limit. Both cold (containing USL and CSL) and Goun fermentation techniques were able to lower the AFB1 concentration below this threshold. The metabolomics result revealed that ogi produced using the cold (USL) and Fon fermentation processes had the highest number of most of the detected important compounds, whereas the Goun fermentation process produced the fewest compounds in total. There was no statistically significant difference in the ability of the specified natural fermentation processes to lower FB1, FB2, FB3, deoxynivalenol (DON), sterigmatocystin (STERIG), and zearalenone concentrations in maize (ZEN). In addition, the results demonstrated that the four natural fermentation processes evaluated had varying effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100160
JournalFood Hydrocolloids for Health
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2023


  • Food metabolomics
  • Food processing
  • food safety
  • ogi
  • traditional fermentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Gastroenterology


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