Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: Complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

S. D. Stoev, M. F. Dutton, P. B. Njobeh, J. S. Mosonik, P. A. Steenkamp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


Spontaneous nephropathy in Bulgaria, which is observed frequently during meat inspection and which differs morphologically from the classical description of mycotoxic porcine/chicken nephropathy as made in Denmark, was found to have a multi-mycotoxic aetiology being mainly provoked by a combined effect of ochratoxin A, penicillic acid and fumonisin B1 in addition to a not-yet-known metabolite. Mean contamination levels of ochratoxin A were consecutively low (188.8 and 376.4 μg kg-1) in contrast to high contamination levels of fumonisin B1 (5564.1 and 3254.5 μg kg-1) and penicillic acid (838.6 and 904.9 μg kg-1) for 2006 and 2007, respectively. Some other mycotoxins with lower importance such as citrinin, penitrem A, etc., may also influence clinicopathological picture of this nephropathy. A heavy contamination with Gibberella fujikuroi var. moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides) and Penicillium aurantiogriseum complex (mainly Penicillium polonicum) was observed in almost all examined feed samples coming from pig and chick farms with nephropathy problems from Bulgaria. In contrast, low contamination with Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum and Penicillium citrinum was observed in the same feed samples and these species were isolated as very rare components of the mycobiota.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-88
Number of pages17
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Animal feed
  • Fumonisins
  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • Mycology
  • Mycotoxins
  • Mycotoxins - fungi
  • Mycotoxins - ochratoxin A
  • Screening assays
  • Toxicology - animal study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • General Chemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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