Multi-area load frequency regulation of a stochastic renewable energy-based power system with SMES using enhanced-WOA-tuned PID controller

Peter Anuoluwapo Gbadega, Yanxia Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents a novel nature-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm known as the Enhanced Whale Optimization Algorithm (EWOA), which imitates humpback whales' social behavior to solve the optimization of multi-area automatic load frequency control (LFC) problems of a stochastic renewable energy-based power system with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). An EWOA algorithm is presented in response to the limitations of the conventional WOA algorithm, including its sluggish convergence time, low accuracy, and propensity to easily enter local optimum. The system model investigated includes some physical constraints such as the time delay (TD), generation rate constraint (GRC), reheat turbine (RT), and the dead band (DB). The impacts of these physical constraints on the dynamic performance of the proposed controller were investigated. The EWOA algorithm is utilized to dynamically optimize the parameters of the PID controller for optimal system performance. The effectiveness and dynamic performance of the proposed controller are compared with the conventional WOA using some performance metrics. The system model also includes superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units in both areas and their impacts on the system performances are also investigated. The effects of the changes of two different parameters of the system (frequency bias parameter, B, and the governor speed regulation, R) on the frequency deviation responses and the controller's robustness are examined. It is evident from the results that the dynamic performance of the proposed controller is better than that of the conventional WOA and it is more robust and stable to changes in system loading, parameters, and step load perturbation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere19199
JournalHeliyon
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Keywords

  • Automatic generation control
  • Enhanced whale optimization algorithm
  • Multi-source power generation
  • Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Multidisciplinary

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