Modelling of Low-Voltage Varistors’ Responses under Slow-Front Overvoltages

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In this study, commercially low-voltage MOVs are exposed to switching surges to analyse and model the relationship between the number of surges and the MOV grain barrier height response. Repeated slow-front overvoltage transients are used to degrade the protective qualities of metal oxide surge arrester devices, affecting their reliability and stability. A total of 360 MOVs with similar specifications from three different manufacturers are degraded under switching surges at a constant temperature of 60 °C. The reference voltage and C-V characteristics of MOVs are measured before and after the degradation process to analyse the MOVs’ conditions. Grain barrier heights are determined from the C-V characteristics curve. An F-statistical analysis is then applied to analyse the effects of number of surges on the grain barrier height. The T-test is used to assess the statistical difference between the tested groups. Linear regression analysis is then applied to model the relationship between the number of surges and MOV grain barrier height. The results obtained show that the number of surges has a significant impact on grain barrier height. MOV grain barrier height is found to decrease as the number of surges applied increases. Regression models obtained for the tested MOV groups across all three manufacturers agree and indicate that the reduction in grain barrier height results from an increased number of surges. Regression coefficients of a developed model indicate that for one surge applied, the MOV grain barrier height decreases by 0.024, 0.055, and 0.033 eV/cm for manufacturers X, Y, and Z, respectively. Therefore, there is a linear relationship between grain barrier height and the number of applied switching surges.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-79
Number of pages18
JournalElectronic Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • C-V characteristics
  • analysis of variance
  • grain barrier height
  • metal oxide varistors
  • reference voltage
  • regression analysis
  • switching surges

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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