Mixed research as a tool for developing quantitative instruments

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Rebecca M. Bustamante, Judith A. Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

212 Citations (Scopus)


In this methodological article, the authors present a meta-framework-comprising several frameworks and models, as well as multiple research approaches-that they call an Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process for optimizing the development of quantitative instruments. Using mixed research techniques, the IDCV contains 10 phases that detail the progression from an interdisciplinary review of the literature to the development of the instrument to the evaluation of the instrument development and construct validation process and product(s). Crossover analyses represent a key mechanism in the IDCV, where in analysis types from one tradition (e.g., quantitative analysis) are used to analyze data from a different tradition (e.g., qualitative data). Finally, the authors provide a heuristic example of a rigorous way to develop a Likert-format scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-78
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Mixed Methods Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Construct validation
  • Instrument development
  • Mixed research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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