Minimum-lap-time optimisation and simulation

M. Massaro, D. J.N. Limebeer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


The paper begins with a survey of advances in state-of-the-art minimum-time simulation for road vehicles. The techniques covered include both quasi-steady-state and transient vehicle models, which are combined with trajectories that are either pre-assigned or free to be optimised. The fundamentals of nonlinear optimal control are summarised. These fundamentals are the basis of most of the vehicular optimal control methodologies and solution procedures reported in the literature. The key features of three-dimensional road modelling, vehicle positioning and vehicle modelling are also summarised with a focus on recent developments. Both cars and motorcycles are considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1069-1113
Number of pages45
JournalVehicle System Dynamics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Formula One
  • free-trajectory
  • g-g map
  • Lap-time simulation
  • MotoGP
  • nonlinear programming
  • optimal control
  • optimisation
  • quasi-steady-state
  • road modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Minimum-lap-time optimisation and simulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this