Migmatite dome as a result of multi-fold interference pattern, in the Damara Belt, Namibia

Robyn J. Ormond, Jérémie Lehmann, Pavlína Hasalová, Marlina Elburg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The western part of the Pan-African Damara Orogen in Namibia is located at the intersection of two highly oblique mobile belts: the coastal NNW-trending Kaoko-Gariep belts and the inland NE-trending Damara Belt. The Namibfontein-Vergenoeg (NV) domes are two, basement-cored, migmatite domes exposed in this orogenic intersection. These domes formed through the superposition of four deformation phases in the presence of melt, giving rise to syn-migmatitic multi-fold interference patterns. Early E-W shortening produced steep N–S striking S1 fabrics linked to km-scale steeply E-inclined F1 folds, likely reflecting the southern continuity of the Kaoko Belt fabrics. The superposition of NE-plunging, NNW-inclined F2 folds formed during NNW-SSE, orogen-perpendicular shortening and produced a Type 1 dome-and-basin fold interference pattern. Progressive with D2, D3 deformation caused localised m-scale folding of steep fabrics into inclined to recumbent, NW-plunging F3 folds, and local top-to-the-S or -SE thrusting. NNW-SSE shortening is correlated with the collision of the Congo and Kalahari cratons during Damara Belt formation. Finally, orogen-parallel NE-SW shortening, produced localised NE-inclined and NE-plunging F4 folds. This weaker shortening phase in the Damara Belt is enigmatic and may reflect tectonic activities further in eastern and western Gondwana. The superposition of F4 folds on F2 folds defines a Type 3 fold interference pattern that established the final 3D architecture of the NV domes. The deformation fabrics at the NV domes document three distinct regional shortening events related to large-scale tectonic switches involved in the western Gondwana Supercontinent assembly.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105059
JournalJournal of Structural Geology
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Damara Belt
  • Fold interference
  • Migmatite
  • Pan-African orogen
  • Structural domes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology


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