Microwave exfoliation of a biochar obtained from updraft retort carbonization for supercapacitor fabrication

O. D. Saliu, A. G. Adeniyi, M. Mamo, P. Ndungu, J. Ramontja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Biochar can offer a sustainable and renewable solution to energy storage problems. In this work, a biochar (which we refer to as an exfoliated biochar) with well-formed edge and basal planes was developed and characterized, and its electrochemical properties were tested. Using a three-electrode configuration for study purposes, the original specific capacitance (Csp) of 283 Fg−1 increased to 517 Fg−1 after exfoliation, with an energy density (Ed) of 258.5 WhKg−1, while retaining 95% of its capacity after 5000 cycles with an average charge time of 120 s. The CPE fitting of the EIS showed an ‘n’ value of 0.773, confirming diffusion-based charge storage and a very low ESR. In a two-electrode real world test using a PAT El-cell, a retention capacity of 96.5% was obtained, with a charge time of 210 s. In addition, Csp and Ed values of 493 Fg−1 and 246 WhKg−1 were obtained. The self-discharge profile showed a two-stage self discharge before exfoliation (0.75–0.2–0.08 A), and a one-stage stable self-discharge profile from 0.9 to 0.18 A after exfoliation, demonstrating the high stability of the biochar nanosheets after exfoliation. This work shows that nanosheet forms of biochars can generate a high energy density and offer a long cycle life with minimum self-discharge, making them suitable for supercapacitor applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107308
JournalElectrochemistry Communications
Volume139
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • Biochars
  • Energy density
  • Nanosheets
  • Self-discharge
  • Supercapacitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry

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