Microwave assisted synthesis of nitrogen doped and oxygen functionalized carbon nano onions supported palladium nanoparticles as hybrid anodic electrocatalysts for direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells

Ludwe L. Sikeyi, Themba D. Ntuli, Thomas H. Mongwe, Nobanathi W. Maxakato, Emanuela Carleschi, Bryan P. Doyle, Neil J. Coville, Manoko S. Maubane-Nkadimeng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, we present the synthesis of pristine carbon (p-CNO), nitrogen doped (N–CNO) and oxygen functionalized (ox-CNO) nano onions, using flame pyrolysis, chemical vapour deposition, and reflux methods, respectively. Pd/p-CNO, Pd/N–CNO and Pd/ox-CNO electrocatalysts are prepared using a simple and quick microwave-assisted synthesis method. The various CNO and Pd/CNO electrocatalysts are fully characterized and the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the synthesized CNOs contain oxygen and nitrogen functional groups that facilitates the attachment and dispersion of the Pd nanoparticles. Electrochemical tests show that the N–CNO and Pd/N–CNO electrocatalysts exhibit high current density (4.2 mA cm −2 and 17.4 mA cm −2), long-term stability (1.2 mA cm −2 and 6.9 mA cm −2), and fast electron transfer when compared to the equivalent pristine and oxidized catalysts (and their Pd counterparts), and a commercial Pd/C electrocatalyst, towards ethanol oxidation reactions in alkaline medium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10862-10875
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume46
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Carbon nano onions
  • Chronoamperometry
  • Cyclic voltammetry
  • Direct ethanol fuel cells
  • Electrocatalysts
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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