Metals in kitagata hot springs and water quality effect from Balneotherapy and Hydrotherapy

Aluoch June, Sillanpaa Mika

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Following the popularity of Kitagata hot spring spa therapy and limited scientific studies, the use and cation-content of the hot spring water in Kitagata Uganda was therefore investigated. The hotspring was divided into four zones according to use by tourists as well as the local community which includes; drinking, balneotherapy, hydrotherapy and outflowing water. Samples were taken from each zone and cations were analysed in the samples through Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Labile parameters such as pH, temperature and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in-situ. Na, K, Mg, Ca, S, P, Mn, Li, Fe and Al were detected and compared against WHO drinking water guidelines14. The results implied no WHO exceeded values in cation content. Fe levels which were not detected from the source of the hot spring water were detected in the ouflowing water which also implied that Fe levels may have increased due to hot-spring use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-188
Number of pages7
JournalResearch Journal of Chemistry and Environment
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cation-content
  • Element content
  • Hot-spring use
  • Water guidelines
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Environmental Science
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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