Metallic nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium from aqueous medium: A state-of-the-art review

Muhammad Sohail Bashir, Naveed Ramzan, Tayyaba Najam, Ghulam Abbas, Xiangling Gu, Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Qasim, Humaira Bashir, Syed Shoaib Ahmad Shah, Mika Sillanpää

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


The ever increasing concentration of toxic and carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) in various environmental mediums including water-bodies due to anthropogenic activities with rapid civilization and industrialization have become the major issue throughout the globe during last few decades. Therefore, developing new strategies for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated wastewaters are in great demand and have become a topical issue in academia and industry. To date, various techniques have been used for the remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated wastewaters including solvent extraction, adsorption, catalytic reduction, membrane filtration, biological treatment, coagulation, ion exchange and photo-catalytic reduction. Among these methods, the transformation of highly toxic Cr(VI) to benign Cr(III) catalyzed by metallic nanoparticles (M-NPs) with reductant has gained increasing attention in the past few years, and is considered to be an effective approach due to the superior catalytic performance of M-NPs. Thus, it is a timely topic to review this emerging technique for Cr(VI) reduction. Herein, recent development in synthesis of M-NPs based non-supported, supported, mono-, bi- and ternary M-NPs catalysts, their characterization and performance for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) are reviewed. The role of supporting host to stabilize the M-NPs and leading to enhance the reduction of Cr(VI) are discussed. The Cr(VI) reduction mechanism, kinetics, and factors affecting the kinetics are overviewed to collect the wealthy kinetics data. Finally, the challenges and perspective in Cr(VI) reduction catalyzed by M-NPs are proposed. We believe that this review will assist the researchers who are working to develop novel M-NPs catalysts for the reduction of Cr(VI).

Original languageEnglish
Article number154475
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2022


  • Catalyst
  • Chromium reduction
  • Metallic nanoparticles
  • Toxic hexavalent chromium
  • Water remediation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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