Metabolic Reprogramming of Barley in Response to Foliar Application of Dichlorinated Functional Analogues of Salicylic Acid as Priming Agents and Inducers of Plant Defence

Claude Y. Hamany Djande, Paul A. Steenkamp, Lizelle A. Piater, Fidele Tugizimana, Ian A. Dubery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Designing innovative biological crop protection strategies to stimulate natural plant immunity is motivated by the growing need for eco-friendly alternatives to conventional biocidal agrochemicals. Salicylic acid (SA) and analogues are known chemical inducers of priming plant immunity against environmental stresses. The aim of the study was to study the metabolic reprogramming in barley plants following an application of three proposed dichlorinated inducers of acquired resistance. 3,5-Dichloroanthranilic acid, 2,6-dichloropyridine-4-carboxylic acid, and 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid were applied to barley at the third leaf stage of development and harvested at 12, 24, and 36 h post-treatment. Metabolites were extracted using methanol for untargeted metabolomics analyses. Samples were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS). Chemometric methods and bioinformatics tools were used to mine and interpret the generated data. Alterations in the levels of both primary and secondary metabolites were observed. The accumulation of barley-specific metabolites, hordatines, and precursors was observed from 24 h post-treatment. The phenylpropanoid pathway, a marker of induced resistance, was identified among the key mechanisms activated by the treatment with the three inducers. No salicylic acid or SA derivatives were annotated as signatory biomarkers; instead, jasmonic acid precursors and derivatives were found as discriminatory metabolites across treatments. The study highlights differences and similarities in the metabolomes of barley after treatment with the three inducers and points to the triggering chemical changes associated with defence and resistance. This report is the first of its kind, and the knowledge acquired provides deeper insight into the role of dichlorinated small molecules as inducers of plant immunity and can be used in metabolomics-guided plant improvement programmes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number666
JournalMetabolites
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • Hordeum vulgare
  • antimicrobial metabolites
  • barley
  • liquid chromatography
  • mass spectrometry
  • metabolomics
  • multivariate data analysis
  • secondary metabolites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

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