Latest advances in layered covalent organic frameworks for water and wastewater treatment

Changlei Xia, Sang Woo Joo, Akbar Hojjati-Najafabadi, Huan Xie, Yingji Wu, Tebogo Mashifana, Yasser Vasseghian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


This review provides an overview of recent progress in the development of layered covalent organic frameworks (LCOFs) for the adsorption and degradation of pollutants in water and wastewater treatment. LCOFs have unique properties such as high surface area, porosity, and tunability, which make them attractive adsorbents and catalysts for water and wastewater treatment. The review covers the different synthesis methods for LCOFs, including self-assembly, co-crystallization, template-directed synthesis, covalent organic polymerization (COP), and solvothermal synthesis. It also covers the structural and chemical characteristics of LCOFs, their adsorption and degradation capacity for different pollutants, and their comparison with other adsorbents and catalysts. Additionally, it discussed the mechanism of adsorption and degradation by LCOFs, the potential applications of LCOFs in water and wastewater treatment, case studies and pilot-scale experiments, challenges, and limitations of using LCOFs, and future research directions. The current state of research on LCOFs for water and wastewater treatment is promising, however, more research is needed to improve their performance and practicality. The review highlights that LCOFs have the potential to significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of current water and wastewater treatment methods and can also have implications for policy and practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number138580
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • Adsorption
  • Degradation
  • Layered covalent organic frameworks
  • Pollutant
  • Water and wastewater treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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