Labeling Diversity for Media-Based Space-Time Block Coded Spatial Modulation

Babatunde S. Adejumobi, Thokozani Shongwe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Media-based space-time block coded spatial modulation (MBSTBC-SM) combines the advantages of media-based modulation (MBM) and STBC-SM. Meanwhile, labelling diversity (LD) has been applied to STBC-SM and improve the error performance. Hence, this paper proposes the application of LD to MBSTBC-SM in the form of MBSTBC-SM-LD over a fast, frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channel, without channel estimation. The proposed MBSTBC-SM-LD demonstrates an improved average bit error rate (BER) performance over MBSTBC-SM and STBC-SM. For example, a $4\times 4$ , $m_{rf}=2$ MBSTBC-SM-LD demonstrates a 2 dB gain in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over MBSTBC-SM. Furthermore, the analytical framework for the union bound on the average BER of MBSTBC-SM-LD is formulated, and validates the Monte Carlo simulation results for the MBSTBC-SM system over a fast, frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channel. In addition, a low-complexity detector, which is able to achieve 73% reduction in computational complexity of MBSTBC-SM-LD, while maintaining a near-ML error performance is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9097290
Pages (from-to)99870-99879
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Labeling diversity
  • RF mirrors
  • index modulation
  • media-based modulation
  • space-time block codes
  • spatial modulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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