Kinetic evaluation of dendrimer-encapsulated palladium nanoparticles in the 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction

Ndzondelelo Bingwa, Reinout Meijboom

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97 Citations (Scopus)


The synthesis of dendrimer-encapsulated palladium nanoparticles with ratios of 13 and 55 metal atoms to templating dendrimer, (Pd13- and Pd 55-DENs) was successfully demonstrated with the use of hydroxyl-terminated generation 4 and 5 (G4 and G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as both templating and stabilizing agents. These Pd-DENs catalysts were fully characterized using spectroscopic techniques. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used for the determination of particle size. The average particle sizes were found to be 1.33 ± 0.15 and 1.66 ± 0.20 nm in diameters for Pd13 and Pd 55-DENs, respectively. These catalysts were evaluated using the widely utilized model reaction, 4-nitrophenol (NP) reduction by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The experimentally determined kinetic data was modeled using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation which relates the apparent rate kapp, NP and BH4- adsorption constants, K NP and KBH4- respectively, the surface rate constant k, and the surface area, S. The behavior of the adsorption constants with increasing temperature was also investigated by varying the reaction temperature between 298 and 318 K. The Pd13-DENs showed greater adsorption of NP and BH4- when compared to Pd55-DENs. The overall results showed that the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model can be successfully used for full kinetic analysis of NP reduction by BH4- in the presence of Pdn-DENs catalysts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19849-19858
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number34
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Energy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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