k-Carrageenan based magnetic@polyelectrolyte complex composite hydrogel for pH and temperature-responsive curcumin delivery

Madhappan Santhamoorthy, Kokila Thirupathi, Sathish Sundar Dhilip Kumar, Saravanan Pandiaraj, Mostafizur Rahaman, Thi Tuong Vy Phan, Seong Cheol Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The dual stimuli-responsive drug delivery system has attracted a lot of interest in controlled drug delivery to specific sites. The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles integrated polyelectrolyte complex-based hydrogel (MPEC HG) system was developed in this work. First, magnetic nanoparticles were produced in situ in the synthetic polymer polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG). Furthermore, the natural biopolymer k-carrageenan (kCG) was employed to form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) through charge-balancing interaction between positively charged guanidine units and negatively charged sulfonate groups. Various characterization approaches were used to characterize the developed magnetic polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel (MPEC HG) system. Curcumin (Cur) was employed as a model bioactive agent to examine the drug loading and stimuli-responsive drug release efficiency of the MPEC HG system. Under the combined pH and temperature stimuli conditions (pH 5.0/42 °C), the developed hydrogel system demonstrated great drug loading efficiency (∼ 68 %) and enhanced drug release. Furthermore, the MPEC HG system's in vitro cytotoxicity behavior was investigated on a human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line, and the results revealed that the MPEC HG system is biocompatible. As a result, the MPEC HG system might be used for dual pH and temperature stimuli-responsive drug delivery applications in cancer therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125467
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2023


  • Drug delivery
  • HepG2 cells
  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Polyelectrolyte complex
  • pH and temperature-stimuli

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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