Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high

Arnold B. Bakker, Jari J. Hakanen, Evangelia Demerouti, Despoina Xanthopoulou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1204 Citations (Scopus)


This study of 805 Finnish teachers working in elementary, secondary, and vocational schools tested 2 interaction hypotheses. On the basis of the job demands-resources model, the authors predicted that job resources act as buffers and diminish the negative relationship between pupil misbehavior and work engagement. In addition, using conservation of resources theory, the authors hypothesized that job resources particularly influence work engagement when teachers are confronted with high levels of pupil misconduct. In line with these hypotheses, moderated structural equation modeling analyses resulted in 14 out of 18 possible 2-way interaction effects. In particular, supervisor support, innovativeness, appreciation, and organizational climate were important job resources that helped teachers cope with demanding interactions with students. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-284
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Conservation of resources
  • Job demands-resources model
  • Teachers
  • Work engagement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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