Job Demands-Resources Theory: Ten Years Later

Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Ana Sanz-Vergel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

223 Citations (Scopus)


Burnout refers to a work-related state of exhaustion and a sense of cynicism. In contrast, work engagement is a positive motivational state of vigor, dedication, and absorption. In this article, we discuss the concepts of burnout and work engagement and review their antecedents and consequences. We look back at our inaugural Annual Reviews article (Bakker et al. 2014) and highlight new empirical findings and theoretical innovations in relationship to job demands-resources (JD-R) theory. We discuss four major innovations of the past decade, namely (a) the person × situation approach of JD-R, (b) multilevel JD-R theory, (c) new proactive approaches in JD-R theory, and (d) the work-home resources model. After discussing practical implications, we elaborate on more opportunities for future research, including JD-R interventions, team-level approaches, and demands and resources from other life domains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-53
Number of pages29
JournalAnnual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jan 2023


  • Burnout
  • job demands-resources theory
  • job design
  • proactive work behavior
  • work engagement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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