Internet of Things and Wireless Sensor Networks for Smart Agriculture Applications: A Survey

Md Najmul Mowla, Neazmul Mowla, A. F.M.Shahen Shah, Khaled M. Rabie, Thokozani Shongwe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The increasing food scarcity necessitates sustainable agriculture achieved through automation to meet the growing demand. Integrating the Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is crucial in enhancing food production across various agricultural domains, encompassing irrigation, soil moisture monitoring, fertilizer optimization and control, early-stage pest and crop disease management, and energy conservation. Wireless application protocols such as ZigBee, WiFi, SigFox, and LoRaWAN are commonly employed to collect real-time data for monitoring purposes. Embracing advanced technology is imperative to ensure efficient annual production. Therefore, this study emphasizes a comprehensive, future-oriented approach, delving into IoT-WSNs, wireless network protocols, and their applications in agriculture since 2019. It thoroughly discusses the overview of IoT and WSNs, encompassing their architectures and summarization of network protocols. Furthermore, the study addresses recent issues and challenges related to IoT-WSNs and proposes mitigation strategies. It provides clear recommendations for the future, emphasizing the integration of advanced technology aiming to contribute to the future development of smart agriculture systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145813-145852
Number of pages40
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Internet of Things
  • smart agriculture applications
  • wireless network protocols
  • wireless sensor networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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