Intermediate formation during photodegradation of phenol using lanthanum doped tin dioxide nanoparticles

Abdullah M. Al-Hamdi, Mika Sillanpää, Joydeep Dutta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Lanthanum (La)-doped tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method at room temperature. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of La:SnO2 samples were investigated by studying the degradation profile of phenol and its by-products in water. The treated samples were analyzed by HPLC-UV and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Benzoquinone, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, acetic acid, and 2-propanol were identified as phenol degradation intermediates. Maximum concentration acquired was in the order of catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, and benzoquinone, which was observed in the beginning stages while iso-propanol and acetic acid were observed in the final stages of phenol degradation. We achieved a complete photodegradation of a 10 ppm aqueous phenol solution and intermediates with 0.6 % of SnO2:La nanoparticles in 120 min under artificial solar irradiation. A maximum degradation rate constant of 0.02228 min-1 of propanol and a minimum of acetic acid 0.013412 min-1 were recorded at 37 °C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3055-3069
Number of pages15
JournalResearch on Chemical Intermediates
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • By-product
  • Lanthanum
  • Phenol
  • Photocatalysis
  • Rare earth metal
  • SnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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