Injection Coding with Spectral Shaping Capability

Opeyemi O. Ogunyanda, Thokozani Shongwe, Theo G. Swart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In digital transmission systems that involve pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), channel coding is useful for spectral shaping by concentrating the frequency energy of the transmitted information towards a predetermined range of the frequency spectrum, or making it have low power content at such frequencies, so as to suit the frequency characteristics of the communication channel. We thus present a permutation coding system with injections that can exhibit spectral shaping at rational sub-multiples of the symbol frequency. We also present a mathematical expression that allows for the prediction of low energy positions in the codebook's spectrum. Upper and lower bounds for the low energy spectrum were also determined. Due to the way the injections are introduced, it gives the scheme an advantage of achieving higher symbol rate, when compared with conventional permutation coding systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9312603
Pages (from-to)19939-19946
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Frequency spectrum
  • PAM
  • injection
  • permutation codes
  • power spectral density
  • pulse amplitude modulation
  • spectral shaping
  • spectrum nulls

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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