In-depth characterization of FSP-enhanced aluminum metal matrix: A study in materials modeling and computational techniques

Adedotun Adetunla, Esther Akinlabi, Tien Chien Jen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The production of aluminum metal-matrix composites (AMM) involves reinforcing aluminum and its alloys with various powders, with the addition of ceramic reinforcements expected to enhance the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and the wear resistance behaviour. However, suboptimal production techniques often result in reduced ductility and toughness when incorporating non-deformable ceramic reinforcements. To address this, friction stir processing (FSP) was employed as a novel surface modification process, using Ti–6Al–4V particles to reinforce 1100 Aluminum Alloy. Microstructures of the composites were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), revealing a mean particle size of 2.69 × 103μm for a one-pass FSP at X155 magnification. Notably, the two-pass sample with a particle size of 2.69 × 103μm displayed fewer spherical structures and more irregular structures, indicating a change in the flow mechanism. The three-pass sample exhibited a mean particle size of 1.36 × 103μm, indicating a more uniform distribution and significant size reduction compared to one and two passes. Additionally, a torque-based predicted heat-input analysis indicated that higher temperatures resulting from increased heat production rate and power input led to a decrease in the torque with rising rotational speed. The threaded taper tool generated more heat, potentially facilitating plastic deformation. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using ABAQUS predicted how this heat affected composite quality, closely aligning with experimental data, with less than a 10 °C difference between processing temperatures in experimental and simulated data. The peak temperature increased as the tool rotated at various tool speeds in line with the projected temperature history of FSP. This study is a significant contribution to enhancing aluminium metal matrix composite through the FSP technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5721-5730
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Computational modeling
  • Finite element simulation
  • Image analysis
  • Material structure
  • Thermal production

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys


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