Hydroxyapatite synthesis and characterization from waste animal bones and natural sources for biomedical applications

Promise Chinonso Okpe, Oladipo Folorunso, Victor Sunday Aigbodion, Camillus Obayi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hydroxyapatites (HAps) synthesized from waste animal bones have recently gained attention due to their outstanding properties. This is because there is a need to fabricate scaffolds with desirable mechanical strength, ability to withstand high temperatures, and insoluble in solvents such as water, acetone, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol. This study is an extensive summary of many articles on the routes of synthesis/preparation of HAp, and the optimum processing parameter, and the biomedical application areas, such as: drug administration, dental implants, bone tissue engineering, orthopedic implant coatings, and tissue regeneration/wound healing. A broad catalog of the synthesis methods (and combination methods), temperature/time, shape/size, and the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) value of diverse waste animal bone sources were reported. The alkaline hydrolysis method is proposed to be suitable for synthesizing HAp from natural sources due to the technique's ability to produce intrinsic HAp. The method is also preferred to the calcination method owing to the phase transformation that takes place at high temperatures during calcinations. However, calcinations aid in removing impurities and germs during heating at high temperatures. When compared to calcination technique, alkaline hydrolysis method results in crystalline HAp; the higher degree of crystallinity is disadvantageous to HAp bioactivity. In addition, the standardization and removal of impurities and contaminants, thorough biocompatibility to ensure clinical safety of the HAp to the human body, and improvement of the mechanical strength and toughness to match specific requirements for the various biomedical applications are the important areas for future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere35440
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2024


  • alkaline hydrolysis
  • bioactivity
  • bone tissue regeneration
  • calcinations
  • hydroxyapatite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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