HybridICE® filter: Ice separation in freeze desalination of mine waste waters

A. Adeniyi, J. P. Maree, R. K.K. Mbaya, A. P.I. Popoola, T. Mtombeni, C. M. Zvinowanda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Freeze desalination is an alternative method for the treatment of mine waste waters. HybridICE® technology is a freeze desalination process which generates ice slurry in surface scraper heat exchangers that use R404a as the primary refrigerant. Ice separation from the slurry takes place in the HybridICE filter, a cylindrical unit with a centrally mounted filter element. Principally, the filter module achieves separation of the ice through buoyancy force in a continuous process. The HybridICE filter is a new and economical means of separating ice from the slurry and requires no washing of ice with water. The performance of the filter at a flow-rate of 25 L/min was evaluated over time and with varied evaporating temperature of the refrigerant. Behaviours of the ice fraction and residence time were also investigated. The objective was to find ways to improve the performance of the filter. Results showed that filter performance can be improved by controlling the refrigerant evaporating temperature and eliminating overflow.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1820-1827
Number of pages8
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Filter
  • HybridICE®
  • Salt removal
  • Yield

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'HybridICE® filter: Ice separation in freeze desalination of mine waste waters'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this