Histidine-enhanced gene delivery systems: The state of the art

Seyyed Emad Hooshmand, Makkieh Jahanpeimay Sabet, Akbar Hasanzadeh, Seyede Mahtab Kamrani Mousavi, Niloofar Haeri Moghaddam, Seyed Aghil Hooshmand, Navid Rabiee, Yong Liu, Michael R. Hamblin, Mahdi Karimi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Gene therapy has emerged as a promising tool for treating different intractable diseases, particularly cancer or even viral diseases such as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). In this context, various non-viral gene carriers are being explored to transfer DNA or RNA sequences into target cells. Here, we review the applications of the naturally occurring amino acid histidine in the delivery of nucleic acids into cells. The biocompatibility of histidine-enhanced gene delivery systems has encouraged their wider use in gene therapy. Histidine-based gene carriers can involve the modification of peptides, dendrimers, lipids or nanocomposites. Several linear polymers, such as polyethylenimine, poly-l-lysine (synthetic) or dextran and chitosan (natural), have been conjugated with histidine residues to form complexes with nucleic acids for intracellular delivery. The challenges, opportunities and future research trends of histidine-based gene deliveries are investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3415
JournalJournal of Gene Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • gene delivery
  • histidine
  • macromolecules
  • nanomedicine
  • nucleic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Drug Discovery
  • Genetics (clinical)


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