Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Nevirapine in Wastewater Using the UV/TiO2/H2O2 Process

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3 Citations (Scopus)


This work sought to study the elimination of nevirapine (NVP) from synthetic wastewater using the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system. The main objectives were to evaluate the influence of operating parameters, reaction kinetics, contributing reactive species, degradation pathway, and catalyst reusability. The research surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for optimizing process variables. Five process variables (pH, NVP concentration, TiO2 dosage, H2O2 concentration, and irradiation time) were optimized with the responses set as NVP and Total organic carbon (TOC) removals (%), respectively. 89.23% NVP and 85.71% TOC removals were achieved after 60 min of irradiation under optimum conditions. All the experimental factors were significant for NVP removal. pH was the most dominant factor, with the highest removals obtained under acidic conditions (pH 3). NVP removal conformed to the pseudo-first-order model with a rate constant (k1) of 0.03676 min− 1. Increasing pH reduced the rate constant by 75.38%, while there was an increase of 43.55% with H2O2. NVP degradation was primarily driven by the OH and h+VB. The photocatalyst demonstrated good stability against NVP loss over four cycles. Although the UV/TiO2/H2O2 process has shown promising results in removing pharmaceuticals and dyes in wastewater, its application for the degradation of ARVs remains limited. As far as the authors know, the UV/TiO2/H2O2 process and RSM have not yet been reported for the degradation and optimization of NVP in wastewater, respectively. The findings of this work illustrate that the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system, applied with RSM optimization, can effectively degrade and mineralize NVP in wastewater.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1
JournalEnvironmental Processes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Antiretroviral drug
  • Emerging pollutant
  • Photocatalysis
  • Response surface methodology
  • Wastewater treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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