Genome assembly and annotation of Photorhabdus heterorhabditis strain ETL reveals genetic features involved in pathogenicity with its associated entomopathogenic nematode and anti-host effectors with biocontrol potential applications

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Abstract

The genome sequences of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) bacteria and their functional analyses can lead to the genetic engineering of the bacteria for use as biocontrol agents. The bacterial symbiont Photorhabdus heterorhabditis strain ETL isolated from an insect pathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis zealandica strain ETL, collected in the northernmost region of South Africa was studied to reveal information that can be useful in the design of improvement strategies for both effective and liquid production method of EPN-based pesticides. The strain ETL genome was found closely related to the type strain genome of P. australis DSM 17,609 (~60 to 99.9% CDSs similarity), but closely related to the not yet genome-sequenced type strain, P. heterorhabditis. It has a genome size of 4,866,148 bp and G + C content of 42.4% similar to other Photorhabdus. It contains 4,351 protein coding genes (CDSs) of which, at least 84% are shared with the de facto type strain P. luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1, and has 318 unknown CDSs and the genome has a higher degree of plasticity allowing it to adapt to different environmental conditions, and to be virulent against various insects; observed through genes acquired through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, non-determined polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide- synthase gene clusters, and many genes associated with uncharacterized proteins; which also justify the strain ETL's genes differences (quantity and quality) compared to P. luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1. The protein coding sequences contained genes with both bio-engineering and EPNs mass production importance, of which numerous are uncharacterized.

Original languageEnglish
Article number145780
JournalGene
Volume795
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2021

Keywords

  • Biocontrol
  • Liquid culture production
  • Pathogenicity
  • Photorhabdus heterorhabditis strain ETL
  • Symbiosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

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