Gender, Industrialization, and Industrial Hubs

Fiona Tregenna, Özge İzdeş

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Industrial hubs are a key component of open-economy industrialization and have the potential to influence gendered patterns in industrial development as well as contributing to structural transformation. In most countries, the majority of the workforce in hubs is female—employment is highly feminized. An extensive literature documents the experiences of women workers in hubs, drawing attention to low wages and poor working conditions in export processing zones (EPZs) in particular. This chapter considers the effects of hubs on women and on gender equality. We propose a conceptual framework for analysing these effects, both direct/static and indirect/dynamic, through the channels of employment, wages, working conditions, rights and benefits, empowerment, and social effects. The negative experiences of women workers in many hubs derive in part from the typical concentration of women’s employment in low-wage, low-skill, low value-added hubs, rather than in forward-looking hubs that build on dynamic comparative advantage with decent labour standards.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Industrial Hubs and Economic Development
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9780198850434
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • Gender
  • Industrial development
  • Industrial hubs
  • Industrialization
  • Women
  • Zones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (all)
  • General Business,Management and Accounting


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