Gender and Other Vulnerabilities to Water–Energy Accessibility in Rural Households of Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

Yahaya Sani, Miklas Scholz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Water and energy are essential resources for all people. However, despite the availability of sufficient water and energy resources, men and women continue to be subject to unequal rights to both water and energy in terms of access, allocation, gathering, and quality of resources. Socioeconomic parameters, which include gender, income, and location, are determinant factors of water and cooking energy accessibility in this study. The research aims to assess the accessibility of water and cooking fuels across female-headed households, and evaluate particular vulnerabilities and challenges faced by women and children in rural areas of Katsina State in circumstances of water and energy insecurities. A study involving a questionnaire covering 550 rural households across 11 areas in Katsina State, north-western Nigeria, was conducted. A Pearson product correlation analysis was performed to measure the strength of association between the respondents educational level and income. A chi-square test of independence was carried out to measure the degree of dependence of the households’ resources accessibility. The authors assessed the disproportionate threats and health risks linked to fetching water and gathering of fuel resources. The research findings indicate that water and energy uncertainty among women in rural households is due to unequal responsibilities associated with water-and energy-related household duties that are potentially linked to disadvantages for females, including violence, security threats, diseases, and disempowerment. To address these challenges, water and energy interventions, and important pathways for beneficial change, are proposed for rural regions in sub-Saharan Africa. This should lead to more gender equity associated with water and energy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7499
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • cooking energy access
  • energy
  • food nexus
  • gender-based resource access
  • socio-economic sustainability
  • sustainable development goals
  • traditional rural practices
  • vulnerability
  • water
  • water resources access

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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