Functionalized carbon nanoparticles, blacks and soots as electron-transfer building blocks and conduits

Katherine Lawrence, Charlotte L. Baker, Tony D. James, Steven D. Bull, Ruth Lawrence, John M. Mitchels, Marcin Opallo, Omotayo A. Arotiba, Kenneth I. Ozoemena, Frank Marken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Functionalized carbon nanoparticles (or blacks) have promise as novel active high-surface-area electrode materials, as conduits for electrons to enzymes or connections through lipid films, or as nano-building blocks in electroanalysis. With previous applications of bare nanoblacks and composites mainly in electrochemical charge storage and as substrates in fuel cell devices, the full range of benefits of bare and functionalized carbon nanoparticles in assemblies and composite (bio)electrodes is still emerging. Carbon nanoparticles are readily surface-modified, functionalized, embedded, or assembled into nanostructures, employed in bioelectrochemical systems, and incorporated into novel electrochemical sensing devices. This focus review summarizes aspects of a rapidly growing field and some of the recent developments in carbon nanoparticle functionalization with potential applications in (bio)electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, and electroanalytical processes. Soots to Suit! Functionalized carbon nanoparticles are proving to be very customizable, with a wide range of applications due to their high surface area, conductivity, easily modified surfaces, and ability to form composites. Their potential and uses in (bio)electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, and electroanalytical processes are reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1226-1241
Number of pages16
JournalChemistry - An Asian Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2014


  • biosensors
  • carbon dots
  • fluorescence
  • layered compounds
  • nanostructures
  • voltammetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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