Firewater storage, treatment, recycling and management: New perspectives based on experiences from the United Kingdom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature) were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict "bottlenecks" and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-380
Number of pages14
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Activated carbon
  • Bund system
  • Filtration
  • Fire fighting
  • Foam
  • Pump
  • Run-off
  • Water quality
  • Web of knowledge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Biochemistry
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology


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