Fast microwave-assisted green synthesis of xanthan gum grafted acrylic acid for enhanced methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution

Edwin Makhado, Sadanand Pandey, Philiswa N. Nomngongo, James Ramontja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the present project, graft polymerization was employed to synthesis a novel adsorbent using acrylic acid (AA) and xanthan gum (XG) for cationic methylene dye (MB+) removal from aqueous solution. The XG was rapidly grafted with acrylic acid (CH2 = CHCOOH) under microwave heating. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were used to verify the adsorbent formed under optimized reaction conditions. Optimum reaction conditions [AA (0.4 M), APS (0.05 M), XG (2 g L−1), MW power (100%), MW time (80s)] offer maximum %G and %GE of 484 and 78.3, respectively. The removal ratio of adsorbent to MB+ reached to 92.8% at 100 mg L−1. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorptions of dyes were better explained by the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic model respectively. The results demonstrate xanthan gum grafted polyacrylic acid (mw XG-g-PAA) absorbent had the universality for removal of dyes through the chemical adsorption mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-326
Number of pages12
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Volume176
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2017

Keywords

  • Adsorption
  • Biopolymer
  • Dye
  • Graft co-polymerisation
  • Microwave assisted synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

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