Experimental analysis of cutting force during machining difficult to cut materials under dry, mineral oil, and TiO2 nano-lubricant

I. P. Okokpujie, L. K. Tartibu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Difficult-to-machine materials, e.g., Titanium alloys, are highly applicable in diverse industries that yield strength and wear resistance. However, they prove difficult to machine due to high vibration, leading to high cutting forces during the machining process. This vibration occurs from chip discontinuity and thereby leads to high friction between the cutting tool and workpiece. In order to minimize these challenges, lubricants are employed in machining operations to reduce frictional and other unnecessary cutting forces and improve surface finish. This research focuses on studying the nano-lubricant effects in reducing cutting forces in the machining of TI-6AL-4V-ELI alloy. Also, carry out a comparative study of dry, mineral oil, and TiO2 nano-lubricant during face-milling machining for optimal performance. Additionally, the study develops a predictive mathematical model for cutting force using a Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. A two-step approach was employed to develop the nano-lubricant before the machining process. The dynamometer is used to collect the cutting force data at the end of each sample. The Results show that the lubrication conditions play a significant role in the reduction of cutting forces. The mineral oil-based-TiO2 nano-lubricant reduces the cutting force by 19 % compared with the mineral oil during the machining of TI-6AL-4V-ELI alloy. Furthermore, the optimal parameters to reduce cutting forces during face milling of TI-6AL-4V-ELI alloy are cutting speed at 3000 rpm, 200 mm/min feed rate, 0.3 mm depth of cut to obtain the minimum cutting force 30 (N). This study concludes that the application of TiO2 nanoparticles in mineral oil significantly improves the thermal and mechanical properties, which leads to a reduction of cutting force.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-230
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Measurements in Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Taguchi design
  • cutting force
  • machining
  • nano-lubricant
  • titanium alloys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Instrumentation
  • Mechanical Engineering


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