Evaluating the Chinese version of the teacher sense of efficacy scale (C-TSE): Translation adequacy and factor structure

Kwok Tung Tsui, Kerry J. Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This study subjected the Chinese version of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (C-TSE) to further empirical study in two ways. First, it assessed its translation adequacy and produced a new, reliable, and valid Chinese version. This was done by drawing on the original version and by employing more rigorous translation methods to identify and resolve translation problems. An expert panel was also employed to adjudicate on final translation and item selection issues. The new Chinese version is referred to in this article as the C-TSE(R). The C-TSE(R) was subjected to further analysis in order to assess its psychometric properties among a sample of Chinese teacher leaders. The results of an exploratory analysis showed a basic factor structure that differed from the one identified in the original English version of the instrument but quite consistent with that identified in the original C-TSE. A cultural explanation is advanced for this variation. The factor structure was also evaluated against those reported by related studies using the original C-TSE. The results of the study reported here suggest that C-TSE(R) is a valid and reliable instrument that, with further validation studies, could prove to be a very useful tool for assessing teacher sense of efficacy in Chinese societies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-260
Number of pages16
JournalAsia-Pacific Education Researcher
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Chinese teachers
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Teacher efficacy
  • Teacher sense of efficacy scale
  • Translation adequacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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