Estimating and using propensity score analysis with complex samples

Debbie L. Hahs-Vaughn, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Propensity score analysis is one statistical technique that can be applied to observational data to mimic randomization and thus can be used to estimate causal effects in studies in which the researchers have not applied randomization. In this article the authors (a) describe propensity score methodology and (b) demonstrate its application using elementary student data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). The authors also discuss methodological considerations that need to be addressed when using data from complex samples as in this analysis. Furthermore, the authors provide a tutorial that can be used by researchers to understand the methodology behind and to emulate the steps of conducting propensity score analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-65
Number of pages35
JournalJournal of Experimental Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Complex samples
  • Observational studies
  • Propensity analysis
  • Propensity matching
  • Propensity score

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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