Entropy Generation of Graphene Nanoplatelets in Micro and Mini Channels: Nanofluid Flow in Automotive Cooling Applications

Luke O. Ajuka, Omolayo M. Ikumapayi, Esther T. Akinlabi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The present study examines the entropy generation of graphene nanoplatelet (GnP) suspended in different basefluids, theoretically. GnP in water (W), ethylene glycol (EG) and ethylene glycol- water (EGW, 1:1) was examined under laminar flow state in a unit length mini and micro-channel of 3mm and 0.05mm diameter. The coefficient of conductivity (Ck) and viscosity (Cμ) of the nanofluid were determined from experimental analysis and their order of magnitude were established for analysis of entropy generation in mini and micro-channels. Entropy generation by fluid friction (Sgen, ff) in the channels containing EG was higher than with W and EGW by 75.6% and 79.9%, respectively. Thermal irreversibility (Sgen, th) of W was lower by132.9% and 58.2% compared to EG and EGW. Sgen,th in all the fluids decreased with increased solid volume fraction in minichannels, while, Sgen,ff increased with increase in volume fraction for micro-channels. Total entropy generation (Sgen, tot) of water was lower by 75.6% and higher by 64.8% compared to EG and EGW, respectively in a micro-channel, whereas Sgen, tot of water was lower by 123.7% and 38.4% compared to EG and EGW, respectively. As GnP volume fraction was increased in the basefluids, entropy generation ratio decreased, highlighting the positive influence of thermal properties of the nanofluid. A lower Bejan number for water (Bew), 36.8% and 358.9% were observed compared to EG and EGW in microchannel, whereas Bew was lower by 3.8% and 13.8% when compared to EG and EGW nanofluids in the mini channel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)917-926
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • entropy generation
  • graphene nanoplatelet
  • laminar flow
  • microchannel
  • mini-channel
  • nanofluid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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