Empowerment process in community-based tourism: Friend relationship perspective

Melphon A. Mayaka, Gary Lacey, Christian M. Rogerson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


This paper explores the ‘alternative’ empowerment roles of catalyst, facilitator and advocate in community-based tourism in the context of community development practice, drawing on findings from four community-based tourism (CBT) ethnographic case studies in Kenya. A ‘friend’ or ‘neighbour’ relationship is uncovered as a possible combination of these roles. The various roles may be points or positions in a continuum, a relationship that develops over time. The roles could be realised between a community and an individual from within or outside the community. It is further proposed that understanding the roles and the relationships provides possibilities for community empowerment and sustainable community development within CBT settings. The findings point towards opportunities for the enhancement of empowerment, either driven by deliberate efforts of development practitioners or brought about in non-deliberate, organic manner through collaborative work of a wide range of actors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)791-808
Number of pages18
JournalDevelopment Southern Africa
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2020


  • Community-based tourism
  • advocate
  • ally
  • catalyst
  • empowerment
  • facilitator
  • sustainable development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development


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