Effect of time on formation of phases in the slag during tin production

David Ilunga Mutombo, Michel Kalenga Wa Kalenga, Willie Nheta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Most cassiterite ores contain a certain amount of niobium and tantalum, which report to the slag during tin production. The reduction time is said to enhance the formation of some phases which preferentially dissolve some metals than others. The current paper investigates the effect of time on the phases that form in the slag during reduction and the preferential dissolution of Nobium and Tantalum in some phases. XRD, XRF, SEM-EDS were used to analyse the head sample and the products of the smelting process. The basicity was kept at 1 with the addition of dolomite. Carbon was used as reducing agent and an alumina tube furnace for the reduction. Graphite crucible was used and CO was blown in the furnace to minimise the reaction between the sample and the crucible. Experiments were conducted at different reduction times. The time varied from 30minutes to 2hours with 30 minutes intervals at 1400 o C. Results showed that Nobium and Tantalum are preferentially dissolved in Monticellite, Ferrocolumbite, Fayalite, Tantalum oxide and Niobium oxide, the two oxides reaching 5% in the slag while the purity of metal reached a maximum of 99% of Sn and 1% Fe.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMaterials Science and Technology 2018, MS and T 2018
PublisherAssociation for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)0873397681, 9780873397681
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventMaterials Science and Technology 2018, MS and T 2018 - Columbus, United States
Duration: 14 Oct 201818 Oct 2018

Publication series

NameMaterials Science and Technology 2018, MS and T 2018


ConferenceMaterials Science and Technology 2018, MS and T 2018
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Cassiterite
  • Nb-Ta
  • Reduction time
  • Smelting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of time on formation of phases in the slag during tin production'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this