Dynamic D2D Communication in 5G/6G Using a Distributed AI Framework

Iacovos I. Ioannou, Christophoros Christophorou, Vasos Vassiliou, Marios Lestas, Andreas Pitsillides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This paper focuses on D2D communication for 5G/6G in dynamic environments where the D2D network topology changes through time due to D2D Devices- mobility. Specifically, we consider a scenario within the coverage area of a Base Station (BS) serving a number of User Devices (UEs), with variations in speed and direction causing changes in the D2D network topology, either via direct connections or via D2D single-hop or D2D Multi-hop paths. Based on this scenario, we formulate a problem aiming to maximise the total Spectral Efficiency (SE) whilst minimising the total Power Consumption (PC), by selecting the best transmission mode that the D2D devices will operate. In order to address the aforementioned problem, the Distributed Artificial Intelligence Solution (DAIS) plan proposed in our earlier work and designed for static environments is extended to consider the mobility (i.e., speed, direction and indirectly link distance change) of the D2D Device, targeting the dynamic creation of stable and efficient clusters and good backhauling links towards the gateway. The enhanced DAIS performance is comparatively evaluated in terms of SE and PC against selected variations in UE speed and direction, changes in the link Transmission Power (TP), and an increase in the number of Devices in the D2D network. Overall, the results obtained demonstrated superior performance of enhanced DAIS over all the other related investigated approaches (i.e., Distributed Sum Rate (DSR), Single Hop Relay Approach (SHRA), Distributed Random (DR)), in terms of Spectral Efficiency (SE) and Power Consumption (PC). Also, the ability of enhanced DAIS to react and adapt quickly and efficiently to D2D network topology changes, with reduced signalling overhead and control delay in responding to changes, shows that it is a well-poised approach to be used in a Dynamic D2D Environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62772-62799
Number of pages28
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • 5G
  • 6G
  • BDI agents
  • BDIx agents
  • D2D
  • clustering
  • distributed artificial intelligence
  • dynamic transmission mode selection
  • transmission mode selection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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