Disease distribution and characterisation of a new macluravirus associated with chirke disease of large cardamom

B. Mandal, S. Vijayanandraj, S. Shilpi, K. B. Pun, V. Singh, R. P. Pant, R. K. Jain, S. Varadarasan, A. Varma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum), an important spice crop grown in eastern sub-Himalayan mountains of India, is affected by a viral disease commonly known as 'chirke', which is characterised by light and dark green streaks on the leaf lamina. Although chirke has been known to affect large cardamom for over 50 years, its distribution in large cardamom growing regions and aetiology have remained unaddressed. In this study for the first time, distribution of chirke in the major large cardamom growing regions in India has been determined. North Sikkim and eastern region of Darjeeling hills were endemic region with average disease incidence of 19.2-35%, whereas, Mirik region of Darjeeling hills were free from the disease. Suckers, the commonly used planting material, were the major source for spread of the disease. The virus was sap transmissible to the popular large cardamom cultivars Golsey, Ramsey, Swaney and Varlangey and vectored by Rhopalosiphum maidis and Myzus persicae in a non-persistent manner. Flexuous virus particles measuring 625-650 × 12.5 nm were observed consistently associated with the diseased samples. Polyclonal antiserum to the purified virus showed serological affinity with a macluravirus, cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) associated with a similar disease known as katte disease of small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) occurring in southern India. The 3 terminal genome sequence (1776 nucleotides) of the virus was determined, which revealed a close sequence identity and phylogenetic relationships with the members of the genus Macluravirus. The deduced amino acid sequence of putative coat protein (CP) gene showed maximum similarity of 65.7% with the CdMV. Phylogenetic analysis based on CP and 3 UTR showed that the virus was closer to Alpinia mosaic virus, CdMV and Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus subclade. The results suggest that the virus associated with the chirke disease of large cardamom is a new species under the genus Macluravirus in the family Potyviridae for which the name large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV) is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-236
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of Applied Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Amomum subulatum
  • Macluravirus
  • Potyviridae
  • chirke disease
  • virus disease of large cardamom

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science


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