Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Neuroglia: in the Context of Cell Signalling

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63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The promise of engineering specific cell types from stem cells and rebuilding damaged or diseased tissues has fascinated stem cell researchers and clinicians over last few decades. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into non-mesodermal cells, particularly neural-lineage, consisting of neurons and glia. These multipotent adult stem cells can be used for implementing clinical trials in neural repair. Ongoing research identifies several molecular mechanisms involved in the speciation of neuroglia, which are tightly regulated and interconnected by various components of cell signalling machinery. Growing MSCs with multiple inducers in culture media will initiate changes on intricately interlinked cell signalling pathways and processes. Net result of these signal flow on cellular architecture is also dependent on the type of ligands and stem cells investigated in vitro. However, our understanding about this dynamic signalling machinery is limited and confounding, especially with spheroid structures, neurospheres and organoids. Therefore, the results for differentiating neurons and glia in vitro have been inconclusive, so far. Added to this complication, we have no convincing evidence about the electrical conductivity and functionality status generated in differentiating neurons and glia. This review has taken a step forward to tailor the information on differentiating neuroglia with the common methodologies, in practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)814-826
Number of pages13
JournalStem Cell Reviews and Reports
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

Keywords

  • Differentiation
  • Glia
  • Neurons
  • Neurospheres
  • Organoids
  • Signalling
  • Stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Cancer Research

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