Dietary intake and health risk assessment of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines: a Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulation

Malihe Moazeni, Zahra Heidari, Sahar Golipour, Leila Ghaisari, Mika Sillanpää, Afshin Ebrahimi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines intake from the diet creates human health risks. In this study, nitrate/nitrite intake from diet and its association with nitric oxide (NO) level in humans have been surveyed. Besides nitrate/nitrite, nitrosamines risks were also determined from the diet. This study was conducted as a pilot study; 33 heathy adults participated in and completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for 3 days. Then, concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines were studied by the literature review. Also, the association between the intake of nitrate and nitrite with salivary and urinary NO was evaluated by Bayesian bi-variate analysis. Then, the health risk was assessed for nitrate/nitrite from food groups and drinking water, and nitrosamines from food groups based on hazard index (HI) and cancer risk with the Monte Carlo simulation. The nitrate/nitrite intakes had no association with NO level in the saliva and urine samples. The mean of HI value for the mean of 3 days was 3.57 and 0.32 from food groups and drinking water, respectively. The cancer risk amount of nitrosamines from food groups was (1.74 to 2.22) × 10−3 based on 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) values. This study showed the Iranian diet had a high risk, but drinking water consumption was safe based on nitrate/nitrite and nitrosamines for humans. There is a need to determine the concentration of nitrosamines in drinking water in Iran and to recommend for decrease risk of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines exposure by food groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45568-45580
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume27
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Drinking water
  • Food groups
  • Health risk assessment
  • Nitrate/nitrite
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitrosamines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Dietary intake and health risk assessment of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines: a Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this