Development of a hybrid artificial neural network-particle swarm optimization model for the modelling of traffic flow of vehicles at signalized road intersections

Isaac Oyeyemi Olayode, Lagouge Kwanda Tartibu, Modestus O. Okwu, Uchechi Faithful Ukaegbu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


The tremendous increase in vehicular navigation often witnessed daily has elicited constant and continuous traffic congestion at signalized road intersections. This study focuses on applying an artificial neural network trained by particle swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) to unravel the problem of traffic congestion. Traffic flow variables, such as the speed of vehicles on the road, number of different categories of vehicles, traffic density, time, and traffic volumes, were considered input and output variables for modelling traffic flow of non-autonomous vehicles at a signalized road intersection. Four hundred and thirty-four (434) traffic datasets, divided into thirteen (13) inputs and one (1) output, were obtained from seven roadsites connecting to the N1 Allandale interchange identified as the busiest road in Southern Africa. The results obtained from this research have shown a training and testing performance of 0.98356 and 0.98220. These results are indications of a significant positive correlation between the inputs and output variables. Optimal performance of the ANN-PSO model was achieved by tuning the number of neurons, accelerating factors, and swarm population sizes concurrently. The evidence from this research study suggests that the ANN-PSO model is an appropriate predictive model for the swift optimization of vehicular traffic flow at signalized road intersections. This research extends our knowledge of traffic flow modelling at a signalized road intersection using metaheuristics algorithms. The ANN-PSO model developed in this research will assist traffic engineers in designing traffic lights and creation of traffic rules at signalized road intersections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8387
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Artificial neural network-particle swarm optimization
  • Signalized road intersections
  • Traffic congestion
  • Traffic flow
  • Traffic flow modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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