Development and validation: Fairness perceptions of broad-based black economic empowerment

Tshegofatso Mabitsela, Madelyn Geldenhuys, Karolina Łaba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Orientation: Within the South African context, fairness perceptions of employment equity and affirmative action programmes are discussed at length. However, the perspectives of employees from various backgrounds on the fairness of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) are limited. Further to this, no psychometrically sound instruments could be identified, which can assist to assess the fairness perceptions people hold of BBBEE. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate an appropriate measurement of fairness perceptions of BBBEE within the South African context. Motivation for the study: Minimal research effectively advances our understanding of what actual fairness perceptions people hold of BBEEE. Research approach/design and method: To satisfy the aim of the study, an exploratory sequential mixed-method design was undertaken. This involved the use of semi-structured interviews, followed by a quantitative research design. Main findings: The exploratory factor analysis revealed that a four-factor solution comprising 31 items was both valid and reliable. Practical/managerial implications: The instrument can advance the understanding about the ways in which individuals in the workplace perceive BBBEE. In addition, it can assist to determine whether the programme is indeed effective and enables organisations to better manage those perceptions. Contribution/value-add: The development of a valid and reliable measure can be used by both employers and researchers for the purposes of gaining insight into the influence of BBBEE on behaviour in the South African workplace.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbera2357
JournalSA Journal of Human Resource Management
Publication statusPublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment
  • fairness
  • perceptions of equal opportunities
  • scale development
  • South Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Demography
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


Dive into the research topics of 'Development and validation: Fairness perceptions of broad-based black economic empowerment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this