Developing spinal manipulation psychomotor skills competency: A systematic review of teaching methods

Eleanor De Kock, Yelverton Christopher Yelverton, Cornelius Myburgh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective: To update the state of the art regarding the acquisition of spinal high-velocity low-amplitude psychomotor skills competency among chiropractors and chiropractic students. Methods: Available electronic articles from 5 databases, published between June 2015 and August 2020, were obtained. Eligible studies underwent methodological quality assessments using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists and Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tools. Results: Fourteen critically appraised studies were identified, including 10 cohort studies and 4 randomized controlled trials. There was no literature excluded due to high risk of bias. The type of augmented devices included a mannequin on a force platform, a computer-connected device, a human analogue mannequin, and a 3-dimensional electrogoniometer with an instrumented spatial linkage. Conclusion: The use of augmented feedback devices such as human analogue mannequins with force-sensing table technology and computer-connected devices is potentially beneficial in the chiropractic curricula and may facilitate student learning and improvement of spinal manipulation. More studies are required to determine whether psychomotor skill aids translate directly into raised competency levels in novice clinicians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-123
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Chiropractic Education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Chiropractic
  • Education
  • Learning
  • Manipulation
  • Spinal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chiropractics


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