Determining the impact of economic indicators on water, energy and food nexus for sustainable resource security

Love Opeyemi David, Omoseni Adepoju, Nnamdi Nwulu, Clinton Aigbavboa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Water, energy, and food are economic resources whose security and sustainability affect human livelihood. This paper is dedicated to exploring the influence of economic indicators on the security and sustainability of these resources within the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus. The research employed a quantitative approach, gathering data through a structured questionnaire from 282 WEF management professionals in South Africa. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses, including mean score ranking, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) using EQS and SPSS software. The results of this study highlight the significant impact of economic indicators on the sustainable security of WEF resources. The mean ranking revealed that there is a need to understand people’s economic power for resource sustainability. The CFA and SEM analyses identify four key economic indicators that influence resource security: WEF resource pricing mechanisms, employment rates in the WEF sectors, WEF resource importation, and WEF resource exportation. In conclusion, managing economic indicators within the WEF nexus calls for strategic investment based on comparative advantage. The study provides valuable policy recommendations to support this approach. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
JournalClean Technologies and Environmental Policy
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Economic growth
  • Economic indicators
  • Sustainable resource security
  • WEF nexus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Business,Management and Accounting
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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