Densification of agro-residues for sustainable energy generation: an overview

Segun E. Ibitoye, Tien Chien Jen, Rasheedat M. Mahamood, Esther T. Akinlabi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


The global demand for sustainable energy is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, population, and developmental growth. Transforming the large quantities of biomass resources such as agro-residues/wastes could raise the energy supply and promote energy mix. Residues of biomass instituted in the rural and industrial centers are enormous, and poor management of these residues results in several indescribable environmental threats. The energy potential of these residues can provide job opportunities and income for nations. The generation and utilization of dissimilar biomass as feedstock for energy production via densification could advance the diversity of energy crops. An increase in renewable and clean energy demand will likely increase the request for biomass residues for renewable energy generation via densification. This will reduce the environmental challenges associated with burning and dumping of these residues in an open field. Densification is the process of compacting particles together through the application of pressure to form solid fuels. Marketable densification is usually carried out using conventional pressure-driven processes such as extrusion, screw press, piston type, hydraulic piston press, roller press, and pallet press (ring and flat die). Based on compaction, densification methods can be categorized into high-pressure, medium-pressure, and low-pressure compactions. The common densification processes are briquetting, pelletizing, bailing, and cubing. They manufacture solid fuel with desirable fuel characteristics—physical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and combustion characteristics. Fuel briquettes and pellets have numerous advantages and applications both in domestic and industrial settings. However, for biomass to be rationally and efficiently utilized as solid fuel, it must be characterized to determine its fuel properties. Herein, an overview of the densification of biomass residues as a source of sustainable energy is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number75
JournalBioresources and Bioprocessing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Biomass
  • Briquetting
  • Densification
  • Feedstock
  • Fuel
  • Pelletizing
  • Sustainable energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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